KERALA INFO: Ernakulam District Information
Ernakulam District Information
by by V.A.Ponmelil (All rights reserved by the author) (Feedback)
Density per km2
349 cm (Annual)
The word Ernakulam was drawn from the Tamil word “Erayanarkulam” means the abode of Lord Shiva. Ernakulam district is one of the most developed districts of Kerala. It is formed by the two princely states of Travancore and Cochin and the British Malabar. Major portion of the district is from the Kochi kingdom. Ernakulam is the first district in the whole country to have recorded literacy of hundred percent.
The present Ernakulam District include Paravur, Aluva, Kochi, Kanayannoor, Muvattupuzha, Kunnathunadu, Kothamangalam Taluks which come under Fortkochi and Muvattupuzha Revenue Sub Division. Prior to the formation of Idukki District, Thodupuzha Taluk was also a part of Ernakulam District. Ernakulam District was formed on April 1st 1958.
The District is divided into three well defined parts - High land, Midland and the Lowland consisting of hills and forests, plains and the seaboard respectively.
The High land region is the hilly Eastern portion formed by a section of Western Ghats. The hilly taluks such as Muvattupuzha, Kothamangalm and Aluva are located in this region. The plain land having the natural facilities of drainage via backwaters and canals form the Mid land region. Major part of Kunnathunadu and eastern portion of Kanayannur taluk come under mid land region. The Low land region is formed by the Parur taluk which lies in the flat delta region of the Periyar River, the surrounding islands and the entire Kochi Taluk as well as the western part of Kanayannur. Around 20 percent of the total area is covered by the Low land region.
The main islands of this district are all man-made Willington Island, World's most populated Vypeen Island, Cheriya Kadamakkudi, Valiya Kadamakkudi, Ramanthuruthu, Ponjikkara, Vallarpadam, Kumbalam, Panangad, Cheppanam, Nettoor, Pizhala, Kankattuthuruthu, Korampadam, Cheranelloor, Chathanadu, Chendamangalam.
The district is bordered by the Arabian Sea in the West, Thrissur District in the North, Idukki District in the East and Alappuzha and Kottayam District in the South. The famous River Periyar, flows through all the Taluks except Muvattupuzha. Muvattupuzha River and a branch of Chalakkudy River provide a wide stretch of backwaters to the Ernakulam district and is a major attraction of the place.
Cochin - Ernakulam (kochi) is a city tucked in the beauty of coconut palms and endless blue waters along with a natural harbour. It is the commercial and industrial capital of Kerala. This dynamic city with soaring land prices and rapidly industrialising suburbs was a trading port since Roman times. It was this place which provided the main trade route between Europe and China.
From the time immemorial, the Arab, the Chinese, the Dutch, the British and the Portuguese seafarers followed the sea route to Kochi and left their impressions in the town.
It was during the reign of Unni Rama Koil I, the Portuguese captain Cabral, landed in Cochin. The Portuguese power was strengthened and Cochin rose to political prominence. During the reign of Vira Kerala Varma began the period of subordination of Cochin to the Dutch. Under an agreement on May 1678, the Paliath Achan as Prime Minister has to look after the affairs of the kingdom of Cochin under the guidance of the Dutch.
The Vettatnad faction was defeated by the Dutch. This period saw a commercial treaty between the Zamorin and the Dutch. This was a period of intense disappointment to the rulers of Cochin. The war between Calicut and Cochin continued for nine years during the rule of Rama Varma.
The war was ended by the treaty of 1717 A. D for peaceful co-existence. With the approval of the Dutch the chief of Paliyam committed several acts of highhandedness and incurred the displeasure of the Raja and the Dutch Company.
The reign of Kerala Varma saw the Mysorean invasion of Kerala. The Cochin Raja agreed to become a tributary of Mysore and to pay a `Nuzzar' of one lakh of pagodas.
The reign of Saktan Tampuran was an epoch of economic and social progress in the history of Cochin. Syrian Christians who were settled in the chief towns carried trade and contributed to the commercial prosperity of the state. Later period had political turmoils and Kunhikrishna Menon was installed with the approval of the British.
In 1812 he was sacked and Col. Munro, the British resident, was appointed as Diwan of Cochin in order to reorganise the administration of the state on modern lines. From the time of Munro's appointment in 1812 till the abolition of the office of Diwan in 1947, Cochin was served by a long line of able Diwans. Col. Munro modernised the administration of Cochin and paved the way for the progressive reforms introduced by the Diwans of later days.
Places of Interest
Chinese Fishing nets, Sree Poornathrayeesa Temple, Chottanikkara Temple, Cheraman Juma Masjid, St.Francis Church, Ernakulam Shiva Temple, Jewish Synagogue, Hill Palace Museum, St.George Forane Church, Mattanchery Palace (Dutch Palace)
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